In view of the engineering disasters caused by the deterioration of rock mechanical properties, the sandstone was taken as the research object, and the graded cyclic loading tests were carried out under different crack dip angles. The effects of crack dip angles on the mechanical properties and crack growth characteristics of sandstone were analyzed. The development of microcracks was analyzed based on the characteristics of the acoustic emission spectrum, and finally, the ordered degree of the deformation and failure was quantitatively described using the correlation dimension. The results indicate that as the crack inclination angle increases, the peak load of the specimen gradually decreases, but there is no obvious pattern of pre-crack propagation. The occurrence of frequency domain signals is consistent, indicating that the initiation, development, and propagation of microcracks within rocks are synchronized to form large-scale cracks. The orderliness of rock deformation and failure can be quantitatively described by the correlation dimension, which indicates that the larger the correlation dimension, the more complex the rock failure. The magnitude of the change in the correlation dimension can characterize the severity of the development of internal cracks in the rock.